NOTES KONSERWATORSKI

Start: Notes Konserwatorski, ISSN 2657-3083, DOI 10.36155/NK
Biblioteka Narodowa - strona główna

NUMER BIEŻĄCY

Notes Konserwatorski
2019 Vol. 21

STRONA REDAKCYJNA, s. 9–12 / CREDITS, p. 9–12

POLITYKA OCHRONY I KONSERWACJI ZBIORÓW / PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION POLICY

  • Stan zachowania zbiorów z XIX i XX wieku w bibliotekach polskich. Raport 2018, s. 15–45 / State of preservation of nineteenth – and twentieth-century collections in Polish libraries as of 2018, p. 15–45

    Ewa Potrzebnicka

    The long-term government programme “Acid paper. Large-scale preservation of endangered Polish library and archival collections. 2000–2008” emphasised its main idea: the need for preservation of the entire Polish cultural heritage from the 19th and 20th century in library collections. The primary objective of the project was to assess the state of preservation of the aforementioned library and archival collections and to fully identify any possible threats to them. In the years 2001–2005 the National Library of Poland performed an evaluation of the condition of the nineteenth- and twentieth-century book collections of five large libraries located in different regions of Poland, examining 6 million objects. The conclusion was that Polish library collections are highly acidified. In order to gain information about the current state of preservation of the collections as of late 2018, the National Library of Poland prepared a questionnaire about the preservation of the collections from the 19th and 20th century and sent it out to the 51 largest Polish libraries. The findings from the survey were not optimistic: a half of the libraries took no action regarding to this issue as though they were oblivious of the problem of acid paper and its deacidification. Among the 23 libraries that did not deacidify their collections dating back to the 19th and 20th century were institutions that possess valuable, even unique objects. The state of preservation of undeacidified collections was worse by 14 years of natural degradation occurring in acid paper than at the moment of the assessment. Therefore, saving the written heritage of the Polish people requires planning deacidification and taking prompt actions. It should also be borne in mind that deacidification of Polish library collections is a procedure that takes many years.

FIZYKA, CHEMIA I MIKROBIOLOGIA W OCHRONIE I KONSERWACJI ZBIORÓW / PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY AND MICROBIOLOGY IN PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION

  • Zastosowanie testów luminometrycznych (ATP/AMP) w badaniach mikrobiologicznych obiektów w Bibliotece Narodowej, s. 49–78  / Use of luminometric assays (ATM/AMP) in microbial examination of the National Library of Poland’s collections, p. 49–78

    Bogdan Filip Zerek, Jakub Piechal

    The text describes the performance and results of ad hoc experiments that made it possible to introduce procedures used in the Conservation Laboratory of the National Library of Poland that aim at a microbial evaluation of its collections with the use of disposable dry luminometric swabs and the Kikkoman PD-20 luminometer. Despite its limitations, luminometry is a valuable alternative to traditional cultivation techniques that only yield results after about 10 days. Owing to the procedures we have introduced, that is dampening of the swab in the test tube, this waiting time becomes reduced and the results can be read after 2 hours from sampling. The article shows the outcome of the experiments conducted on different surfaces, including mould fungi, and the results of testing objects from the National Library of Poland’s collections. The authors present their conclusions together with a discussion (also based on the available literature on the use of luminometric assays for microbial evaluation of historical objects), and they provide ready-to-use procedures.

  • Przegląd środków biobójczych używanych prewencyjnie i interwencyjnie wobec obiektów zabytkowych na przykładziezbiorów zielnikowych, s. 79–120

    Magdalena Grenda-Kurmanow

    This paper is a review of biocides used in historical herbaria collections, but also applied to many other types of artefacts. Herbaria with desiccated plants, composed of organic material combined with other organics, such as glues, pastes, and other cellulose-based and proteinaceous materials, are particularly vulnerable to pest infestation. Several chemical compounds have been used either to prevent the infestation or to fight the occurring pest attack. Most of them are now phased out or restricted in use and production. Biocides pose numerous threats both to the artefacts and people working in the heritage sector, such as conservators. This review provides a comprehensive list of biocides used in herbaria with references, chemical identification, and material characterisation, in particular regard to deterioration processes induced in artefacts. The review is a part of the project “Heritage preservation and ethnobotany. Analysis of the influence of conservation treatment on genetic material comprised in historic herbaria” (project no. 2014/13/N/HS2/03118) funded by the National Sciencec Centre in Poland.

  • Review of biocides used as prevention and intervention measures for historic artefacts, with special regard to herbaria collections, p. 121–161

    Magdalena Grenda-Kurmanow

    This paper is a review of biocides used in historical herbaria collections, but also applied to many other types of artefacts. Herbaria with desiccated plants, composed of organic material combined with other organics, such as glues, pastes, and other cellulose-based and proteinaceous materials, are particularly vulnerable to pest infestation. Several chemical compounds have been used either to prevent the infestation or to fight the occurring pest attack. Most of them are now phased out or restricted in use and production. Biocides pose numerous threats both to the artefacts and people working in the heritage sector, such as conservators. This review provides a comprehensive list of biocides used in herbaria with references, chemical identification, and material characterisation, in particular regard to deterioration processes induced in artefacts. The review is a part of the project “Heritage preservation and ethnobotany. Analysis of the influence of conservation treatment on genetic material comprised in historic herbaria” (project no. 2014/13/N/HS2/03118) funded by the National Sciencec Centre in Poland.

  • O papierze, który tak naprawdę papierem nie jest, s. 163–168 / About paper which is actually no paper, p. 163–168

    Władysław Sobucki

    This communication concerns the so-called limestone or rock paper that mainly consists of calcium carbonate bonded with polyethylene. This type of paper contains no cellulose fibres, so it does not require cutting down trees, and thus favours forest protection. The article presents a review of the literature on the properties of limestone paper supplemented with the author’s own observations based on a calendar printed on the type of paper in question. Limestone paper resembles any other kind of paper and may replace it in many applications. Yet, it is not resistant to light. Therefore, full replacement of traditional paper with its limestone equivalent is not possible.

HISTORIA, BADANIA I KONSERWACJA FOTOGRAFII / HISTORY, STUDIES AND CONSERVATION OF PHOTOGRAPHY

  • Problematyka badawcza fotografii na podłożu papierowym autorstwa Jamesa Robertsona, pochodzących z Polskiej Akademii Nauk Biblioteki Kórnickiej, s. 171–224  / James Robertson’s Photographs on Paper from the Collections of the Kórnik Library of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Research Issues, p. 171–224

    Tomasz Kozielec, Małgorzata Mamot

    The article discusses the issues related to the technique used by James Robertson (1813–1888), a British photographer whose output is associated with salt prints. The authors performed research on a collection of 25 photographs that are part of the valuable collections of the Kórnik Library, Polish Academy of Sciences. The presence of a translucent layer on the surface of the prints incited the authors to perform in-depth assessment and analyses of the technique used by the photographer. The methods applied to examine the outer layer of the prints included, among others: microscopic observations of the surface (e.g. 3D imaging), UV fluorescence spectroscopy (max. 365 nm), ATR-FTIR, and SEM/EDX/BSE. The use of complementary research techniques provided a more complete picture of the items in question. Owing to the differences in the type of photographic paper, in signatures on the prints (or their absence), and in microscopic features, as well as thanks to the use of analytical methods, the authors succeeded in concluding that part of the prints were salt prints subsequently covered with albumen varnish, whereas another part of them were actually early albumen prints. There is no doubt that such prints are rarely found in Polish collections and thus deserve particular protection.

  • Identyfikacja, degradacja i zabezpieczanie materiałów fotograficznych wytworzonych na podłożach z estrów celulozy, s. 225–245 / Identification, degradation and preservation of photographic materials produced on cellulose ester bases, p. 225–245

    Anna Seweryn

    This text is an attempt to briefly summarize the knowledge related to archival photographic materials manufactured on unstable cellulose esters bases. The author presents the technology and history of the production of these transparent
    carriers, points out their instability and dramatic degradation process, and introduces known tools and procedures allowing the identification of flexible film support. The text also includes short guidelines for the storage of cellulose nitrate and acetate materials, and a reflection on the situation and identification of this type of collections in local cultural institutions.

Z PRAKTYKI KONSERWATORA / FROM A CONSERVATOR’S PRACTICE

  • Odkwaszanie destruktów na podłożu papierowym. Konieczny czy zbędny zabieg konserwatorski stosowany w profilaktyce ochrony zbiorów?, s. 249–256 / Deacidification of damaged paper objects: a necessary or a useless procedure used in preventive care of library collections?, p. 249–256

    Hanna Straus, Joanna Wasil

    The Mass Conservation Laboratory of the Institute for Conservation of Library Collections, deals with deacidification and protection of nineteenth- and twen¬tieth-century collections of the National Library of Poland. These items are the greater part of over 9 million items that are stored by the Library. The most damaged of the acidified objects undergo paper strengthening through single- or two-sided lamination, and are subsequently subject to mass deacidification, usually with the use of Bookkeper. The article aims at finding whether there is any point in deacidifying lami¬nated damaged paper objects and whether materials whose surface is covered with acrylic glue (single-or two-sidedly) are still able to absorb additional al-kalinizing substances.

  • Profilaktyka mikrobiologiczna zbiorów – procedury w pracowniach konserwatorskich, s. 257–267 / Prevention of microorganism growth in library collections: procedures used in conservation laboratories, p. 257–267

    Agata Lipińska

    The National Library of Poland is one of the country’s most important cultural institutions. According to the National Library of Poland’s report for the year 2019, its collections comprised 9 685 112 volumes/items. This number includes books (non-serial publications) from the year 1801 on, periodicals (serial publications) from 1801 on, ephemera, electronic documents, manuscripts, early printed books (15th–18th c.), sheet music, audio and audiovisual recordings, engravings, drawings, photographs (iconographic documents), maps (cartographic documents) and microfilms. Every year the collections of the National Library of Poland increase by ca. 190 thousand items, of which 10% come from donations, purchases and exchange (“second-hand” items), and 90% are legal deposits provided directly by the publishers. This means that every year the library receives about 19 thousand volumes/items that may pose biological and microbiological danger. To ensure microbiological stability of the entirety of the Library’s collections, it is required to have appropriate storage space with controlled microclimate, a microbiological laboratory and a disinfecting chamber on the spot, as well as employees who observe the safety measures. Additional procedures are needed in conservation laboratories where the items are subject to individual or mass conservation treatment upon which environmental conditions are changed and every inattention or failure to follow the rules may activate the microorganisms. It is human behaviour that turns out to be the least predictable factor in collections protection at each stage and regardless of the procedures applied.

KONFERENCJE, WARSZTATY, WYDARZENIA / CONFERENCES, WORKSHOPS, EVENTS

NOTY O AUTORACH, s. 281–285 / ABOUT AUTHORS, p. 281–285